On March 16, 2023, the UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Ukraine released a report that found Russian forces in Ukraine violated international humanitarian law and conducted “indiscriminate and disproportionate attacks” against civilians. The report described Ukrainian civilians as living in “a climate of unbearable uncertainty and fear” and called for further investigation and accountability. The commission identified several violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, including Russia’s use of explosive weapons to attack Ukraine’s most densely populated areas and systematically target Ukraine’s energy infrastructure. The Commission also noted clear evidence of willful killings, unlawful confinement, torture, rape, sexual and gender-based violence, and the unlawful transfers of detainees. In some areas occupied for a long time, Russian forces established dedicated detention centers targeting Ukrainians they felt supported Ukrainian forces or opposed Russian ones. The report claims that after occupying certain regions, Russian forces violated international humanitarian law. It refers to the referendums held in occupied Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk, and Zaporizhzhia which Russia claimed showed overwhelming support to formally join Russia. The Commission said that Russia unlawfully annexed these regions. The report also noted that in “in a limited number of cases” Ukrainian forces were also responsible for violations of international law. In response to the report’s findings, the Commission encouraged Russia and Ukraine to comply with international law, provide Red Cross access to affected regions, and conduct impartial and transparent investigation into the alleged violations of international law.