International Courts: Legitimacy, Perception, and Outcomes

This program, cohosted by ASIL’s International Courts & Tribunals Interest Group and the American Bar Association’s International Courts & Judicial Affairs Committee, will examine the ways in which identity and diversity in international courts and tribunals—or sometimes the lack thereof—inform the content and legitimacy of their output. Specifically, the program will address how the composition of international judicial benches, as well as their behind-the-scenes actors, influence courts’ opinions. This program will feature a lively virtual discussion among experts across all fields of international law that will touch on many of the themes addressed in Freya Baetens’ recent edited volume Legitimacy of Unseen Actors in International Adjudication (Cambridge University Press, 2019)  and her forthcoming Identity and Diversity on the International Bench: Who is the Judge? (Oxford University Press, 2021).


  • Saadia Bhatty, Gide Loyrette Nouel LLP
  • Manuel Casas, Twenty Essex (Pupil)
  • Linda Strite Murnane, Colonel, US Air Force (Retired), Former Chief, Court Management Services, Special Tribunal for Lebanon and International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
  • Nicola Peart, Three Crowns LLP
  • Cesare Romano, Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, Moderator

This session is organized by ASIL’s International Courts and Tribunals Interest Group